The Mobilization Of The Wheel

The use of the wheel for new ways of transportation took its origin in the vast Eurasian steppe, in today’s Ukraine and the Urals of Russia. From there the car spread over the whole earth. The oldest wagons were found in the area north of the Black Sea and date from the copper age of the 4th and 3rd millennium BC.

The Lab

The “Andronovo” laboratory is part of the modular concept and starting point of the exploration. In this lab, the chariot is discussed and the regional cultures that initiated the spoked wheel development. The invention of the spoked wheel was crucial for the further development of wagons and the first chariots of the Eurasian Steppes and the Middle East.

The First Wagon – Solid Wheels Of The Steppes

The oldest cart models were found in the Trypillya region on the Dnepr (today’s Ukraine) and the northern Caucasus foothills, the contact zone between Indo-Europeans and Old Europeans (4th and 3rd millennium BC). The Romans completed the development of the cart with the well-known swivel joint (around 100 BC), which allowed for improved agility.

The Archaic Chariot

The heavier carts with full wheels comparatively huge disc wheels, were further developed and replaced by subsequent cultures such as the Sintashta culture and the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture (2300 – 1000 BC) in the Bronze Age. Thus, the chariot was first known 1700 BC at the border area between today’s Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and the Hindukusch.

The Spoked Wheel

The lightweight construction of the spoked wheel enabled faster mobility compared to the heavy full wheels and thus contributed to the rapid spread of this technology. New, lighter wood materials and metals were used. Different spoked wheel constructions are found among the Indo-Iranian migration (from 2100 BC), the Mitanni empire (1500 – 1300 BC) the Egyptian Empire (New Empire: approx. 1550 – 1070 BC), Assyrians (New Assyrian Empire from the 900 BC) and in the Persian world empire (from 550 BC).

Info Map

The map shows archaeological and historical sites. It provides insights and additional information about the region’s culture of the time. In addition, there are information visualisations, animated infographics and infomaps which are not available to users in the real world in terms of form and aesthetics. The countries shown on the map did not exist at the time of the Indo-European and Indo-Iranian migration, but should allow the user a better global as well as local spatial location.